Selection of places, positions and lands for growing raspberries
As a perennial crop, raspberries remain in the same place for 10, 15 and more years. Therefore, it is very important to choose a suitable place for the little one. Raspberries thrive best when fully exposed to the sun and good ventilation, provided with a sufficient amount of moisture and with protection from damage that can cause wind and frost. Variable winter and spring temperatures cause most damage. In our climate, raspberries give the best results when grown on slightly sloping up to 10% northern exposures. Water and cold air are not retained in such positions, while the snow cover is usually long-lasting. Too bent positions over 10% and positions exposed to strong winds are not suitable for raspberries, because they are not wet enough, mechanization of works in the raspberry is difficult, and native branches and shoots often break when strong winds blow. It is desirable to have good air circulation in the plantation because it reduces the possibility of numerous fungal diseases. Poor air flow increases the humidity of the air around the fruits and shoots, which affects the development of disease of the shoots and rot caused by fungi. Wild raspberries and blackberries growing around the plot intended for planting can also be a problem. They are a good habitat for pests and are often a source of viruses and fungal pathogens. If you are able, eliminate them within a radius of 200 meters around the plantings. Wild raspberries and blackberries growing around a plot intended for planting can also be a problem. They are a good habitat for pests and are often a source of viruses and fungal pathogens. If you can, eliminate them within a 200-meter radius around the plantings. Wild raspberries and blackberries growing around a plot intended for planting can also be a problem. They are a good habitat for pests and are often a source of viruses and fungal pathogens. If you are able, eliminate them within a radius of 200 meters around the plantings.
Land Selection For Malinjak
Raspberries grow best on highly permeable soils (sandy or muddy loam) that contain a high degree of organic matter (> 3%) and whose acidity (pH) ranges between 5.5 - 6.5. In heavier, less permeable soils, the possibility of root diseases is increased, although they can be alleviated to some extent by choosing more resistant varieties of raspberries, by placing raised beds and applying chemicals.
About 90% of the root system is located at a depth of up to 50 cm of the surface layer of the soil from which the root draws moisture and nutrients.
Soil preparation should ensure normal growth of shoots and abundant yield of raspberries. Since raspberry is a perennial plant, soil preparation must be done properly and in a timely manner. Soil preparation for raising children includes:
|extraction of vein and stump stones|
|leveling and shredding the surface|
|as well as land parcelling|
If the soil is weeded with long-lived weeds, then after removing the pre-crops, in June the soil should be treated with some herbicide to destroy weeds. Preparation of unweeded soil can begin 1-2 months before the start of planting raspberries.
After the soil is cleared of weeds, stones, veins and stumps, fertilization or application of organic and mineral fertilizers is started. The amount of fertilizer depends on the type of soil and its fertility. The amount of manure ranges from 20,000-60,000 kg / ha, super phosphate 500-600 kg / ha, potassium sulfate or 40% potassium salt 800-1000 kg / ha, ammonium sulfate 200-500 kg / ha. The land for raising the young is plowed early in the fall to a depth of 30-40 cm. After plowing, all the veins of the trees should be collected and burned, and the land should be leveled and chopped with a heavy harrow or plate.
Raspberries larger than 5 ha should be divided into plots of up to 2 ha. The main roads in Malinjak should be about 5 m wide in order for mechanization to be applied.
|SURFACE CROPS||LATIN NAME||SEED DOSE||VEGETABLE MASS||CROP TYPE / SOWING TIME||INDICATIONS|
|Winter rye||Cereal secale||125 kg / ha||4.5-l t / ha||Winter, annual / late fall||Allelopathic weed control. Good plant mass. Not suitable as a host of nematodes and Pythium. It can be mixed with oats, beans and sweet clover.|
|Buckwheat||Fagopyrum esculentum, F. sagittatum||80 kg / ha||1-1.5 t / ha||Summer, annual crop / early summer||It is sown on slightly acidic soils (pH). It uses calcium and phosphorus from poorly fertile soils. Destroys weeds. If left, it gives birth again in the next vegetation.|
|Marigold||Tagetes spp.||10 kg / ha||Summer, annual crop / early spring||It destroys nematodes. Weak plant mass. Seedlings planted in a funnel can be used only on relatively small areas. It is probably more difficult to procure in larger quantities.|
|Sorghum broom||Sorghum bicolor||90 kg / ha||16-22 t / ha||Summer annual crop / late spring||Destroys weeds. Good plant mass.|
|Oats||Avena sativa||112 kg / ha||9-13 t / ha||Summer, annual crop / early spring||Fast-growing spring crop. Sow before sowing seeds. It is sown on weakly acidic soils (5.5pH). It can be sown as an autumn crop. It does not overwinter. It can be mixed with rye and beans.|
|Rye grass / Italian ryegrass||Lolium multiflorum||22.5 kg / ha||Summer, annual crop / late spring||Heavier soils with a small amount of nitrogen suit him. Good plant mass. It is mixed with legumes.|
|Rye grass||Lolium perenne||28 kg / ha||Perennial crop / late spring||Control of allelopathic weeds. Good plant mass is mixed with legumes.|
|Clover alfalfa||Medicago sativa||16 kg / ha||8 t / ha||dry / Perennial legume / spring-summer||It thrives on acidic soils (6-7 pH). Generally destroys weeds and balances nitrogen levels. It can host some pests. It can be mixed with herbs.|
|White clover||Trifolium repens||4.5 kg / ha||12-25 t / ha + 40-270 kg N / ha||Perennial legume crop / spring-summer||Requires acidic soils with high levels of phosphorus. It generally destroys weeds and contributes to balancing nitrogen levels. It can host some pests. It can be mixed with herbs and clover.|
|Red clover||Trifolium pratense||20 kg / ha||5.5 t / ha + 50 kg N / ha||Perennial legume crop / spring-summer||It grows on soils with acidity> 5.6 pH and on several types of soil. It generally destroys weeds and contributes to balancing nitrogen levels. It can host some pests. It can be mixed with herbs.|
Taken from the Agronomy website, Predrag Nastić , B.Sc.
Text used: “Manual for raspberry production”