Red raspberries are planted from October to April with mature shoots, and in June with green shoots. Autumn planting of raspberries in our climate has more advantages compared to spring.
First of all, during autumn planting, raspberry shoots are used, which were taken out of the rootstock a short time ago for the production of shoots. Raspberry seedlings planted in the fall do not lack moisture, and at soil temperatures above the freezing point, they develop a root system during the winter months. Therefore, raspberries planted in the fall develop strong shoots in the first vegetation and in the second year bring good fruit.
Late spring is planted with raspberries that have spent a long time in traps. If the spring is dry and there is no possibility for the little one to be watered regularly, then the reception of seedlings is very weak.
Planting raspberries during the winter months is more favorable than planting raspberries in the spring if the soil is suitable for work and the temperatures are not below the freezing point. Black and purple raspberries are always planted in the spring, because only then do the tops of the shoots take root, it is understood that this planting should be done as early as possible in March, before the vegetation has started.
Selection of Planting Material
It is very important to provide healthy planting material of good quality. For now, it will not give good results if this condition is not met. Planting material should be obtained from a reliable nursery that sells certified seedlings, to make sure that the material is not infected. The risk of infection is the lowest in seedlings obtained from tissue culture, in second place are those from greenhouses, while seedlings produced in field conditions carry the highest degree of risk. Plants obtained from tissue culture are procured at a higher price, but are usually paid for through increased yield and longer life of plantation.
The distance between seedlings should also be determined in the year before planting, in order to ensure an adequate number of seedlings. The distance between the rows depends on the machinery that will be used and the backrest that will be installed. The distance between the rows ranges from 2.4 to 3.3 m. The width of the mower and the placement of the backrest must be taken into account, ie sufficient space must be provided between the rows for unobstructed mowing, spraying and harvesting. Research has shown that diseases occur less and that higher productivity is achieved if the number of rows is higher and when they are at a smaller distance, than when there are fewer rows at a greater distance. The distance between seedlings in a row in red raspberries varies from 0.6 to 0.9 m, depending on the lushness. Generally speaking, raspberries are grown in the form of shrubs or hedges, with a large number of young shoots that develop from the root collar and fill the space between the primarily planted seedlings. In several varieties, such as "Titan" and in varieties of purple fruits, the shoots develop mainly from shrubs and these varieties can be grown in a system of raised beds.
The total number of seedlings required for the planting area is calculated using the form: the total area of the plantings divided by the number of rows divided by the distance between the seedlings. For example, 10,000 m2 (1 ha) divided by 3.0 m between rows divided by 0.9 m between seedlings equals 3,704 seedlings (1000 / 3.0 / 0.9 = 3703.7). Seedlings should be ordered in the winter before planting to ensure adequate quantity.
Raspberry varieties are classified into two groups: homogeneous (summer) and dicotyledonous (autumn). Several weak dicotyledonous types of raspberries are described as types that always bear fruit, give a smaller autumn yield, and can be treated as homogeneous and dicotyledonous raspberries. Raspberry is a natural biennial plant with a perennial shrub. After the development in the first vegetation, the one-year-old shoots go through a period of dormancy in autumn, the last winter low temperatures and give birth the following year. Annual shoots in other vegetation are called biennial shoots, because they bloom. After fruiting, these shoots die off and are removed the following spring. Instead, new one-year shoots become two-year ones. Pruning of two-year-old shoots in the spring, in order to thin the fruit and remove the dry shoots,
Dicotyledonous varieties give birth in the first year, in the autumn of the same year. The strength of the growth varies greatly, from fruiting only on the tops of the shoots in some dicotyledonous varieties, to abundant production along the entire length of the shoot, in varieties such as "Autumn bliss" and "Polka". In late-ripening varieties, such as Heritage, early frosts can affect reduced yields. In these varieties, pruning is done by mowing to ground level before the emergence of annual shoots in early spring. The fruits of the varieties used for fresh use are lighter in color than those produced for processing, they have a firmer mesocarp and can be kept in the refrigerator for up to ten days under ideal conditions. Fruits of a lighter color are less dark in the refrigerator and are less likely to show signs of damage due to manipulation and transport. In terms of longevity, there are large variations among varieties. The market is also showing interest in larger fruits for a number of reasons, including a greater consumer preference for larger fruits, as well as easier harvesting. The fruits of these varieties have larger depressions that are deformed due to careless handling.
Preparation of Raspberry Shoots for Planting
Raspberry shoots are best received if planted immediately after extraction. This is often not possible, so it is best to store the seedlings in traps and refrigerators, to protect them from drying out from freezing and mechanical damage. If the shoots spend a long time in transport, the veins should be immersed in water immediately upon arrival, left in it for 24 hours and then planted.
For planting, shoots are used whose variety identity is known and which are guaranteed to be healthy (certified planting material). It is very advantageous that the shoots are 50 cm long, of medium thickness 8-10 mm, with a developed root system of 8-10 main veins, where each of these veins is 12-20 cm long and with as many small veins as possible. The seedlings should have as many preserved buds as possible, and the veins at the intersection should be fresh and light in color.
Before planting, the veins are shortened to ¼ and immersed in a diluted porridge mixture of water and equal parts of beef dung and clay with the addition of some disinfectant, e.g. Previcur (0.25%) or Benomyl (0.1%). Green shoots are rarely used to raise babies.
Ways of Planting and Raspberry Growing Systems
Raspberries can be grown in the form of different systems depending on the environmental conditions, variety and selected agricultural techniques. The following cultivation systems are most commonly used:
|Shrub system with square distance|
|Shrub system with rectangular distance
SQUARE SYSTEM WITH SQUARE DISTANCE
Planting distance 1.5 × 1.5 m to 2.5 × 2.5 m, which depends in our climatic conditions on the lushness of the variety and the working range of the processing machine. One seedling is planted in one planting place, and less often 3-4. With a sufficiently large square distance, processing can be performed in two directions. With this system of cultivation, a small number of seedlings per unit area. This cultivation system can be used on flat and slightly sloping surfaces.
BUSH SYSTEM WITH RECTANGULAR DISTRIBUTION
The distance between the rows is 2.5-3 m and in a row 1-1.5 m. Here, one seedling is rarely placed in one planting place. In the first years, cross-processing is possible, while later only the inter-row distance can be processed. At a rectangular distance, the yields are slightly higher than in a square system.
With this system, the distance between the rows is 2.5-3 m, and in the row 0.30-0.50 m. In practice, there is a system of wide ribbons 60-90 cm, and a system of narrow ribbons 30-40 cm.
The wide ribbon system has several drawbacks . Since a large number of shoots sprout in a wide ribbon, processing is impossible in it. The fruiting branches are too dense in the middle of the rows, so pickers have a hard time noticing the fruits. The shoots are weak, they often bend, so the fruits get dirty. Fruit quality is poorer but yields are high. The large ribbon system is not recommended.
The system of narrow ribbons is suitable for growing raspberries. The rows are 2.5-3 m apart, and the width of the row is 30-40 cm. The distance between the rows depends on the working range of the machine used for processing, as well as on the lushness of the variety in the plantation. The number of shoots per hectare is relatively large, so high yields are obtained. Raspberries grown according to this system give good fruit, and the fruits are of good quality.
HEALTH FENCE SYSTEM
Planting distance is 2.5-3m between rows and 0.25-0.5m in a row. Growing raspberries according to the hedge system achieves good results, labor consumption is low, protection is easy, yields are high, and the quality of the fruit is good. One and rarely two shoots are planted at the planting site. The width of the belt in which the raspberries grow is about 40 cm, the bushes are spaced apart, so it is possible to cultivate around them and the sunbathing of the shoots is good.
Raspberry shoots, especially in lush varieties, are bent under the load of the genus towards the ground, in order to prevent that, backrests are placed. 200 × 5 cm is used for the shrub system, and 200 × 10 cm for ribbons and hedges. A galvanized wire 2-3 mm is placed between the poles.
The poles can be made of wood (acacia, oak), iron or reinforced concrete. Wooden poles should be burned to half their height, dipped in burgundy soup or coated with greasy paint. Iron is protected from corrosion by basic and greasy paint. The poles are driven into the ground at 8-10m from each other.
Some state that it is better to place the poles immediately after planting because it is easier than when the raspberries grow.
The backrest can be:
|With one wire at a height of 1.20-1.50 m, to which the shoots are tied.|
|With two wires one below the other at 60 and 120 cm, between which the shoots are pulled and tied to the upper wire.
|With two wires at the same level at 100 to 120 cm between which the shoots left for the rod are pulled in, the distance between the wires is 30-40 cm, which is achieved by riveting the board for the poles and the wire for the boards.
|With four wires, two of which are at the same level at 60 cm and at 100-120 cm, the shoots are pulled between the wires that are 30-40 cm apart.
The system recommended for growing perennial varieties is the V-trellis. With this system, the poles are placed at an angle of 20-30 ° or, in some cases, at a slightly higher angle, depending on the terrain configuration and the lushness of the variety. For example, the pillars are placed so that the distance at the bottom of the pillars is 46 cm, and between the top of the pillars 107 cm, and at an angle of 25 °. Two rows of wire are attached to each of the poles placed in the ground, as described. The first row of wire is placed at a height of 70 - 80 cm, and the second at a height of 160 - 170 cm, with a distance of 60 -70 cm between the wires. In the spring, two-year-old shoots are pruned and tied to a wire on the outside of the row, to allow harvesting, while one-year-old shoots are allowed to grow on the inside, for next year's harvest. This system of cultivation increases the number of shoots per 1 m of row,
In the vertical backrest system, the distance between the rows is between 2.5 - 3 m and 0.25 - 0.5 m within the row. Pillars made of acacia, or some other non-rotting wood, 2.5 m high, or concrete pillars measuring 250 × 12 × 10 cm are used for the backrest. The pillars are placed in the ground, wooden pillars to a depth of 50 cm, concrete 70 to cm, which means that the height of the pillars above the ground ranges from 1.8-2.0 m. The front pillars should be dug deeper and a backrest placed next to them. Depending on the length of the rows, it is recommended that every tenth pillar in a row be supported by beehives. Wooden pillars are placed at a distance of 6-7 m, and concrete at 8-10 m. This system can be used with T or I trellis. In the first case, a transverse lath 60-90 cm wide is placed at the predicted height of the growth of two-year-old shoots, and the second transverse lath, 45 - 60 cm wide, is attached to approximately ⅓ to ½ the height of biennial shoots. The wire is placed on the outer part of the transverse boards on which the two-year-old shoots rest. The disadvantage of this system is reflected in the impossibility of adjusting the height, and it is also an obstacle when picking fruits from one-year-old shoots.
In the first trellis , transverse slats are not used, but 1 to 2 individual wires (one on each side of the pillar) with which the upright two-year shoots are connected. This way of tying prevents the shoots from breaking due to the wind, but it affects the fact that the annual shoots develop towards the outer part of the row, which can make harvesting and spraying more difficult.
Taken from the Agronomy website, Predrag Nastić , B.Sc.
Text used: “Manual for raspberry production”