Climate for growing raspberries
The following climatic elements are important for raspberry growth:
Temperature is a very important factor that determines the arrangement of raspberry plants on the earth's surface. Wild European red raspberries and artichokes are widespread far to the north. In these areas, there are relatively low plants that can withstand low temperatures down to -35 ° C under a snow cover. In the absence of snow, raspberry shoots can freeze at temperatures from -18 to -26 ° C, which depends on the variety and its physiological condition.
The root system of raspberries freezes at a soil temperature of -12 to -14 ° C, especially when it is not protected by snow. Fluctuating temperatures in the spring can cause significant damage to the shoots. Especially if the temperatures above 6 ° C and -7 ° C change.
Raspberries do not tolerate climates with high summer temperatures. It thrives best in areas with cool summers and winters that are not too harsh. Dicotyledonous raspberry varieties are more sensitive to low temperatures than homogeneous ones. In cold regions, the tops of immature shoots freeze.
The main production areas of raspberries are located in the semi-humid and humid regions, where the annual amount of precipitation exceeds 800 mm of sediment, and the moisture is properly distributed during the vegetation period. Raspberries do not tolerate drought. Insufficient amounts of moisture in the soil and air reduce yields and reduce the quality of fruits, the root grows poorly and the number of shoots and their lushness are reduced.
Raspberries grow well on permeable soils with high water capacity, especially if the raspberry is located near forests, which provide freshness, favorable humidity and air flow.
On too moist soil, raspberries grow poorly and die on muddy soil. Groundwater must not be closer to the surface more than 1 m.
Raspberries should be protected from cold, dry and stormy winds. Stormy winds can break raspberry shoots and especially long fruiting twigs before harvest and during harvest. Mild breezes are useful for raspberries, because they prevent or cut off the appearance of fungal diseases.
Raspberry is a plant that requires a lot of light and moisture to thrive. In the north, raspberry cultivars thrive in sunny southern positions. While in the southern parts it is mostly grown on the northern exposures. Raspberry gives good results if it is grown according to the hedge system, because then a sufficient amount of light is available to it. Raspberries are difficult to tolerate stronger shade.
Loose, permeable and weakly acidic soils, rich in organic matter, are favorable for raspberries, which can receive and retain sufficient amounts of moisture during the dry growing season. Raspberries do not tolerate light, dry, lime and sandy soils, nor heavy and compacted soils with high groundwater levels.
Groves, slightly weeded groves and alluviums are the most suitable for growing raspberries. Heavy smonice and heavy podzoli are not suitable for raspberries. Limestone often has a lack of iron and magnesium, which leads to leaf chlorosis and difficult photosynthesis.
Soils whose pH is around 6 are the most suitable for raspberries, more precisely if the pH ranges from 5.5 to 6.5.
Orographic factors include: altitude, position and exposure. In our country, tribal varieties of raspberries grow at 400-800 m above sea level.
The position significantly affects the freezing of raspberries. Raspberries should be raised in positions with good air drainage. Raspberries freeze in wide valleys with narrow outlets, in narrow bays, and in positions that are hit by cold winds - north, basket, so such positions should be avoided when raising raspberries. The northern exposures are colder and wetter than the southern, eastern and western ones, so they are best for raspberries in our circumstances.
Taken from the Agronomy website, Predrag Nastić , B.Sc.
Text used: “Manual for raspberry production”