Agricultural works in the field and raspberry orchard
Care of the Young Plant
After planting, each plant should be fed with 20-30 g. Nitromoncol. Inter-row distances in the raspberry should be pollinated by machines, and in rows by hand. The following spring, the empty spaces are filled with green or mature cuttings. The care of raspberries in the first year after planting is reflected in regular cultivation, destruction of weeds, watering 3-4 times, and protection of young plants from diseases and pests. The most important thing is to develop a few strong shoots in the first year, which will bear fruit in the second year. If planted in November, raspberries can bear fruit in the first year, which covers production costs.
Care Plantations During the Fruiting Period
The care of raspberries in the genus begins in the early spring of the second year after planting and lasts as long as the raspberries are productive. The following agro-technical measures are applied during the birth period of the young:
|in the year of planting: fertilizing seedlings, weed control, maintenance of row spacing|
|pruning and protection from adverse meteorological factors|
The purpose of all these measures is to form a sufficient number of strong, fertile shoots that are able to provide high yields and good fruit quality.
Land Development In Malinjak
Necessary measures should be taken to ensure a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil, because the shoots grow and the fruit develops during spring and summer, when there is often a lack of water. Humidity, more than other factors, affects the size of the fruit, and therefore the yield. Careful tillage is the most effective way to preserve soil moisture. The beginning of tillage falls in early spring as soon as the soil dries enough. The land should be shallow and often tilled with machines, primarily with a tractor between the rows, and manually in a row in order to prevent the development of weeds and the formation of crusts. Raspberry has a shallow root and during processing we should take care that the processing is shallow up to 10 cm so that the root system is not damaged. In our conditions, it is recommended that the raspberry be processed five times:
|for the first time in March since the snow melted|
|the second time in mid-April|
|the third time in early May - before flowering begins|
|fourth time in early June — before harvest|
|for the fifth time in the second half of July or early August - after the end of the harvest|
The cultivation of raspberries is combined with the cultivation of crops for green manure such as facelia and lupine. These plants are sown in September and June of the following year, the flowers are shallowly plowed to a depth of 10 cm or introduced into the soil by a plate. Facelia and lupina are sensitive to frost and cannot weed the baby. If green manure is not applied in the raspberry, then after fertilization with manure or mineral fertilizers, the soil should be plowed or thinned to a depth of 10 cm, preferably at the end of October.
The following spring, the tillage cycle is repeated.
Of all the fruits, raspberries take the most nutrients from the soil. Raspberries require large amounts of organic matter in the soil. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to apply 25 t / ha of manure or compost every year. The introduction of organic matter into the soil improves its water, air and heat regime. The most important nutrients for raspberries are potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen.
In the absence of potassium, the shoots develop poorly, the internodes are short, and the mesophile between the nerves is reddish-brown. In case of a great lack of potassium, the leaves are bent towards the back. Raspberries require the most potassium during flowering, germination and fruit development. Raspberry is a potassium plant, and plants in the genus should be fertilized every year with 200-400 kg / ha of potassium sulfate. Potassium fertilizers should be added to the young in the fall of the previous year and plowed or thinned to a depth of 10 cm in order for the potassium to be used for the next year's crop. Potassium sulphate is better for raspberries in the genus than potassium chloride, because with the long-term application of potassium chloride, chlorine accumulates in the soil, the effect of which can be toxic.
In the absence of nitrogen, the shoots are slightly lush and thin, and the leaves are small and yellowish-green, so they fall off in early autumn. Fertility decreases due to the weakness of the native branches. Due to the excess of nitrogen, the shoots are too lush and juicy, and the internodes are very long. Such shoots form a larger number of fruiting branches than normally developed shoots, so the yields are lower than with normal supply. Raspberry leaves are wide and dark green when there is an excess of nitrogen, and the fruits are juicier and more difficult to transport. The ripening of the shoots is difficult and they can suffer from frost. Depending on the pH of the soil, the amount of organic matter, meteorological conditions and applied agricultural techniques, the selection and determination of the amount of nitrogen fertilizers is performed. Nitromoncol should be used on soils whose pH is below 6, and ammonium sulfate on soils where the pH is above 6. The mentioned fertilizers are given in quantities of 200-400 kg / ha,
As a biogenic element, it is necessary for the growth and development of raspberries. However, unlike nitrogen and potassium, phosphorus never appears as a factor limiting the production of raspberries. If sufficient amounts of phosphorus fertilizers are applied in the preparation of the soil for raspberries, then during the exploitation of raspberries this level should be maintained by fertilization. This is achieved by fertilizing with 150-200 kg / ha of super phosphate every year, or with 450-600 kg of superphosphate every third year. . In addition to potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus, a child can also have a lack of iron, manganese, sulfur and boron.
Iron deficiency manifests itself in the form of chlorosis, which first affects the tops of the shoots, and in the absence of manganese, the leaves are first affected at a certain distance from the top of the shoots.
The lack of sulfur is manifested in the chlorosis of tissues along the nerves. The disadvantage does not appear if the raspberry is fertilized with ammonium sulfate or potassium sulfate.
The first symptoms of a lack of wrinkles in a baby are reflected in the delay in opening the buds, and in severe cases the buds do not move at all. Boron deficiency can be eliminated by applying borax at a concentration of 40-50 kg / ha. This amount of borax should be mixed with ten times the amount of sand or dry soil and then spread on the raspberry.
Irrigation of Raspberries
For normal growth of shoots and development of raspberry fruit, it is necessary for the soil to be well supplied with moisture from March to mid-July, or more precisely from the beginning of vegetation to the end of the harvest. In our conditions
|the first irrigation is carried out in mid-April|
|second - in early May|
|the third at the beginning of June, more precisely 12-14 days before the beginning of the harvest|
|fourth at the end of June, ie at the time of full harvest|
|fifth - in mid-July after the end of the harvest|
After each irrigation (except the fourth), the raspberry should be treated in order to use the bark and preserve the moisture in the soil.
For now, raspberries are usually irrigated with a drip system. The modern assortment of raspberries reacts to precise irrigation with a marked increase in yield, but also in the quality and firmness of the fruit. Proper irrigation also has a positive effect on the fertility potential in the next season. Inadequate water regime significantly complicates mineral nutrition and normal functioning of nutrient cycles in the soil.
The depth and structure of the root system largely determine the character of the irrigation system and the irrigation regime. Usually the irrigation system should be placed in the zone of order and irrigated only to the final depth of the raspberry root system.
Regardless of the fact that the root system reaches a depth of up to 175 cm (Makosz, 1986), the main part of the root grows directly in the surface layer of the soil (Slovik, 1973; Makosz, 1986). According to some other authors, the main root reaches a depth of up to 2.5 m, but almost 70% of the total mass of the raspberry root system is located to a soil depth of 25 cm, and as much as 90% to a depth of 50 cm, which is actually the effective depth irrigation. Raspberries absorb most of the water through the root system from the surface layer of the soil to a depth of about ten centimeters. In irrigation, it is important that the surface layer of the soil is not left without water, because raspberries cannot compensate for the water deficit from the deeper layers of the soil. The tensiometer placed at a depth of 10 cm provides data used to define the irrigation regime, ie irrigation norms and irrigation dynamics.
Raspberries are very sensitive to water deficit in the soil, even in cases of short droughts, which has a very negative effect on growth and yield. The critical period for the lack of water in the soil is the phase of flowering, growth and ripening of fruits. It responds best to irrigation during the period of fruit growth.
Given the vertical and horizontal distribution of the root system and water characteristics of the land on which raspberries are grown in Serbia, it is desirable that the laterals with a distance of emitters up to 30 cm, placed on both sides of the row and thus ensure ideal distribution of irrigation water and form continuous wetting zone along the length and width of the rhizosphere layer. According to the mechanical properties of the soil in our main raspberries, it is best to use laterals with emitters at a distance of 30 to 50 cm and an emission of 5 to 10 l / h / m. It is very important that we use only self-compensating laterals for slope irrigation, where with the highest quality producers, the height difference in the length of the row can be over 35 m.
It should be constantly borne in mind that the root system of raspberries is equally sensitive to lack of oxygen as to water deficit. Overwetting leads to serious problems, so in that sense, irrigation must follow the installation of analog or digital hygrometers at a depth of 10 cm and at a depth of 50 cm, in order to define the most precise irrigation regime of raspberry plantations. The fact that raspberries are among the crops that require a lot of oxygen for successful growth and development of the root system to not even temporarily tolerate overwetting, requires that the pre-irrigation humidity should fall just below the point of optimal security, following the values of water deficit on the sensor . Irrigation is stopped when the appropriate state of soil moisture is detected with a moisture meter (sensor) at a depth of 50 cm.
According to Iwanov (1984), drip irrigation increases the yield of raspberries by 2.4 to 19.2% compared to sprinkler irrigation. On lighter soils, watering norms are lower, and intervals between waterings are shorter. Irrigation of the Polana variety on very light soil, with a lower humus content (1.9%) in the conditions of Poland resulted in significant savings in irrigation water for the drip system compared to the irrigation system. The total irrigation norm was reduced from 328 mm annually to only 203 mm, which contributed to the increase in yield, size and quality of raspberries, sugar and vitamin content. Of the total amount of water adopted in the irrigation of raspberry plantations by drip system on lighter soils, solidly provided with organic matter, on average per plant is absorbed From layer to depth up to 10 cm 36% of the total amount of water, from the layer 10 to 20 cm deep another 25%, then from the layer 20 to 30 cm deep another 19%, while from the subsoil layer 30 to 50 cm deep only 7% of the total needs of the plant in water are adopted (Rolbiecki et al., 2002) . In the irrigation of raspberry plantations, there is a constant conflict in the need to achieve the largest possible fruit size with intensive irrigation, without overdoing the number and abundance of shoots for the next season. Tensiometers are ideal from the point of view of controlling the size of irrigation norms for irrigating raspberries and berries in general (Hoppula and Salo, 2007), because based on a certain pre-irrigation humidity (-150 hPa; -300 hPa and -600 hPa) we can define a high yield (abundant) irrigation), but also the firmness of the fruit and the participation of rolanda can be high. Abundant irrigation should especially be avoided late in the season to avoid freezing of the shoots for the following year, so that the moisture content per tenyiometer is within the water holding force of -600 hPa (Hoppula and Sallo, 2006). By irrigating mail plants in Chile, Gurovich (2008) developed specific models of irrigation and mineral nutrition based on potential evapotranspiration, soil characteristics and irrigation water quality with the aim of achieving ideal fruit size and firmness on a rational and sustainable basis.
Irrigation is not the only way to influence the water regime of raspberries. Another very important aspect of modern technology that reduces the need for additional irrigation is the spreading of the bed with black foil (Mage 1982, Makosz 1986, Stojanowska 1986, Rechnio 1989 and Lipecki 1992). In addition to reducing evaporation from the free surface of the soil, weeds and soil moisture losses in competition with the plant are eliminated (Stojanowska 1986, Rechnio 1989, Lipecki 1992). Makosz (1986 by Tharatanols) report much higher yields in foil plantations, compared to plantations in which weeds were controlled by the use of herbicides.
When raspberries are grown on a high bed with mulch foil in full vegetative growth, then even 20 mm of precipitation cannot significantly thin the usual dynamics of irrigation, but possibly delay the watering norm for a day or two. Thanks to the fact that substrates based on peat, or coconut bark and fibers are ideal from the aspect of rooting, then when growing in pots, only 3 to 5 liters of volume per plant is enough. In the case of soils of medium mechanical composition, the distance between the emitters can be up to 50 cm. It is very important that due to the change in the distribution of soil moisture, new shoots for the next year appear exclusively in the zone of order, which reduces the amount of work in their control.
According to research by Jaroslavcev, (1987) raspberries for a basic yield of 8 t / ha including total organic production together with the removal of shoots, from the soil averages 50 kg / ha N, 15 kg / ha P2O5 and 65 kg / ha K2O. Mineral nutrition will depend on the provision of land with the most important macroelements and their accessibility to plants, climate characteristics of a certain production area and meteorological conditions in a given production season, agrotechnical and post-technical measures that are practiced, but also on the specifics of certain varieties. In extreme chemical reaction of soil solution, both in acidic and alkaline soils, in cases of inaccessible forms of certain macronutrients, inadequate ratio of certain nutrients, but also in case of inadequate soil moisture, raspberry root system is not able to absorb sufficient amounts of nutrients,
The most important macronutrients in raspberry diet are nitrogen and potassium. For organic production and vegetative growth, nitrogen is an irreplaceable macronutrient, while potassium is crucial for yield and quality, but also resistance to diseases, or to drought and winter crops.
Artificial fertilizers applied in the spring. It is recommended to test the composition of the soil and leaves every other year, in order to optimize the fertilization program. Raspberry plantations 2 years old and older have a need for pure nitrogen in the amount of 45 - 90 kg / ha per year. This amount is provided either through natural processes in the soil or through the application of artificial fertilizers, or through a combination of these two methods. In general, 50 kg / ha of pure nitrogen is the dose applied to annual seedlings, 84 kg / ha of pure nitrogen to biennial and older seedlings. A slightly larger amount will be needed on light soils, and a slightly smaller one on heavy ones. In the first year after planting, use any cheaper source of nitrogen. Composite fertilizers should not be used in the ratio 15:15:15, except on sandy soils. If, for example, use sodium nitrate, you will need 165 kg / ha to provide 56 kg of pure nitrogen, 247 kg / ha for 84 kg of pure nitrogen (sodium nitrate contains 34% nitrogen). Dicotyledonous varieties require more nitrogen, due to the intensive development of shoots, and then fruits in the same year. A plant of 2 years and more needs 78 kg / ha of pure nitrogen per year. As for homogeneous varieties, annual seedlings have a 40% lower need for nitrogen. The source of nitrogen in dicotyledonous varieties may be the same as in monocotyledons. Apply artificial fertilizer twice, during the swelling of the buds in the spring, and for homogeneous varieties at the time of fruit set. Dicotyledonous varieties should be fed at the same time as homogeneous ones. In plantations that are not irrigated, artificial fertilizers should be applied to a lesser extent than in those that are irrigated. Young plants should be fertilized half as much as older ones. Dicotyledonous varieties have less need for fertilization than homogeneous ones, because the excess of nitrogen affects the delay of germination, and the later genus can be absent due to the appearance of frosts.
Care Plant in the Year of Planting
Successful planting requires adequate irrigation to ensure the retention of 50% of water in the soil during the first vegetation. A thin watering system is recommended and should be installed before planting. It can later be added to the lower part of the backrest, in order to preserve the system. Soil moisture control is best done with a tensiometer.
In the years of planting, artificial fertilizer should be applied to a small extent. Apply 28 - 39 kg of nitrogen per hectare 4 weeks after planting. Preference is given to calcium nitrate (calcium salt) or some artificial fertilizer that is soluble in water, since powdered fertilizers can "burn" young seedlings (260 kg / ha of calcium salt provides 39 kg / ha of pure nitrogen) . The percentage of nitrogen in other conventional fertilizers is given in the table. Remember that the amount of fertilizer should be calculated only for the area of rows (funnels) with plantings (if the average width of a funnel with orchards is 1.5 m and you have left 3m distance between rows, then you need approximately 1/3 of the amount of fertilizer you would use for the whole hectare - ed.). For homogeneous species of raspberries, it is necessary to apply another fertilizer in August.
|Calcium nitrate||Ca (NO3) 2||15|
|Urea||CO (NH2) 2||46.6|
|Ammonium sulphate||(NH4) 2SO4||20.5|
For seedlings obtained from tissue culture, apply mulch for the first 6-8 weeks, not herbicides. In the years of planting, there is usually a need for shallow tillage around the seedling, in order to avoid the use of herbicides and weed growth. Before the appearance of weeds, green seedlings with bare roots can be treated later during the growing season with napropamide and / or a small dose of simazine 6 months after that, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The herbicide setoxidim can be used after the appearance of weeds. Do not forget to add an adequate dose of oil concentrate, otherwise setoxidim will not give satisfactory results. Try to keep 0.9 m of space in a row without weeds. Mulch should not be applied in the first year after planting, because mulching can stimulate root rot.
Maintenance of Inter-row Space
It is common for the inter-row space to remain unplanted and free of weeds, and it is maintained during the year of planting until late summer and early autumn, when perennial or seasonal crops can be planted on it. Planting surface crops slows down the growth of weeds, reduces erosion and drainage of chemicals from the soil and suppresses the appearance of certain diseases and pests. Surface crops also affect the improvement of soil quality and the increase of organic matter and, in general, contribute to the maintenance and more attractive appearance of children. A mixture of combined crops (grasses of the genus Festuca (perennial), perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) and true meadow grass (Poa pratensis)) are the best combination that ensures longevity of the soil, low consumption of nutrients and water and easy maintenance of perennial crops, although clover or common grass can be sown independently. Efforts should be made so that perennial crops do not fall into line with the tendency to take water and nutrients from raspberry bushes. Surface crops should be mowed regularly to prevent this. Seasonal surface crops, such as rye, rye grass and barley, can also be sown between rows each year, and then serve as natural mulch. Before re-sowing in the following year, these crops can be sown shallowly, in order to avoid possible damage to the raspberry root system. and then serve as a natural mulch. Before re-sowing in the following year, these crops can be sown shallowly, in order to avoid possible damage to the raspberry root system. and then serve as a natural mulch. Before re-sowing in the following year, these crops can be sown shallowly, in order to avoid possible damage to the raspberry root system.
The red raspberry shoot lives for two years. In the first year it reaches its full height and in the second year it bears fruit and dies. The raspberry root is perennial, and new shoots are created on it every year. Raspberry shoots should be left to develop in the first year without intervention. In March of the second year, when the danger of frosts passes, pruning is done. All weak shoots are removed, and if necessary, some stronger ones, so that 5-7 of the strongest, well-distributed shoots remain in the bush. Shoots left for the genus are shortened to a height of 120-150 cm, which depends on the lushness of the variety and the humidity of the environment. The shoots are shortened so that they can remain upright under the burden of the genus. If there are shoots with premature side branches in the trellis, they should be removed, and for binding, choose shoots without side branches, of uniform thickness and without the presence of signs of disease. Sharp shortening of shoots in the spring has several disadvantages. Yields are reduced, and the size of the fruit does not increase, new shoots can obscure the fruiting branches, so the harvest is difficult, the fruits ripen later than with moderate pruning. When the harvest is over in the second half of July, the two-year-old red raspberry shoots are pruned to the ground (which have borne fruit) to provide enough space for new shoots to grow.
Green Pruning Raspberries
Performed during the vegetation period, the "Arilje method" (cutting of new young shoots in the period from the middle of IV to the end of V month, 3-5 times when they reach a height of 10-15 cm) can provide high yields of raspberries in humid climates or where there is a system for irrigation - cannot be applied unconditionally !!!
Raspberry fruits do not ripen at the same time. That is why the harvest is done on several occasions and lasts for three to four weeks. Gradual ripening of the fruits makes the harvest more expensive, but this enables the supply of the market with fresh raspberries. The beginning of raspberry harvest depends on the variety, meteorological conditions and applied agricultural techniques. In our conditions, raspberries begin to ripen in mid-June and the harvest ends in mid-July. In addition to the summer harvest, overhaul varieties bear fruit in the fall in September or October. Autumn harvest yields are 20% of what is harvested in summer.
The difference in ripening between early and late varieties is 12 days. Raspberries are picked when the fruit has acquired the characteristic color of the variety and when it is easily separated from the flower bed, but is not crushed. The fruits are picked without the flower bed and stalk. Raspberry fruits should be picked every other day during the full season, and if the weather is very dry and warm, then every day. The fruits are picked very carefully, in order to avoid damaging the fruit, and then they are carefully lowered into the packaging. The best time to harvest raspberries is early in the morning and late in the afternoon.
Packaging And Quality Degrees Raspberries
Raspberry fruits for fresh use are packed in packaging that holds from 0.5 to 1 kg of fruit. This packaging is made of waxed cardboard, perforated plastic substances or wood. The size of these boxes is adjusted so that they can be placed in small open shallow slats - Dutch. Freezing raspberries are packed in two layers in wooden or plastic Dutch. A larger number of layers would make it difficult to freeze the fruit. Raspberry pulp is packed in pulp barrels that contain sulfuric acid as a preservative. According to the quality, raspberries are placed on the market as extra quality raspberries, I quality and II quality.
|Extra quality fruits must have the shape, development and color characteristic of a given variety. In addition, they must be uniform in size, shape of maturity and color.|
|Fruits and quality must be properly developed, uniform in size and maturity and with the characteristic color for a particular variety. Raspberries of this quality can have fruits up to 5% with a cup.|
|Quality II raspberries can be of uneven ripeness and have 10% of fruits with a cup.|
It is estimated that almost 40% of the crop is lost in the period until the fruits reach the field to the end customer. Much of this loss occurs due to poor post-harvest fruit handling, which includes transportation. By reducing the number of fruit transfers, both from hand to hand and as a packaged product, the percentage of loss will be reduced. Raspberries should be kept in cold conditions, packed at each stage of transport. The crates should be transported on pallets, not allowing them to lie on the floor or touch the side of the trailer, to ensure air flow. The temperature in the crates touching the floor or side of the trailer can be as high as 11 ° C.
Also, the crates should not be lined up above the rear wheels of the truck to reduce knocking. In order to stabilize the pallets, they can be additionally repackaged, or ribbons can be placed on them. If possible, use a refrigerated truck. However, with most of these trucks, the air circulation is not satisfactory, and the temperature cannot be kept below 4 ° C without the fruits freezing. As a result, maximum cooling of the fruit before loading is even more important, in order for the product to reach the market in the best possible condition. If a refrigerated truck is not available, fruit boxes from air-conditioned conditions should be covered with a cloth to maintain a lower temperature. This procedure is not recommended for long distance transport.
The transport of fruits to the wholesale or retail market is often beyond the control of the breeder. The improvement of the quality of the product that reaches the consumer is influenced by the development of good relations with customers in wholesale, ie retail, in order to educate them on how to adequately handle fresh raspberries. Personal contact between the seller and the buyer before the first delivery is desirable, and in cases where this is not possible, the operating instructions included with the shipment may be helpful.
Preservation of Raspberry Fruits
Because the fruit is sensitive, keeping it fresh is difficult and short-lived. Fresh raspberry fruit can be stored for 10-14 days in a refrigerator at -0.6 to 0 degrees Celsius and at a relative humidity of 85-90%. Today, raspberries are increasingly frozen in the form of individual fruits of rolled goods and stored in this way until use. This procedure consists of:
1-pre-cooling the fruit to 0 ° C
2-deep freeze at -35 to -45 ° C
3-storage of fruits at -18 to -20 ° C
Deep-frozen raspberries can be stored for a very long time at -18 to -20 ° C. These fruits must be used for a short time after thawing.
Taken from the Agronomy website, Predrag Nastić , B.Sc.
Text used: “Manual for raspberry production”